The Molecular Biology of Poliovirus by Dr. Friedrich Koch, Prof. Dr. Gebhard Koch (auth.)

By Dr. Friedrich Koch, Prof. Dr. Gebhard Koch (auth.)

Years in the past once we have been requested to write down a publication at the present-day wisdom of the molecular biology of poliovirus, we didn't anticipate that such an it appears sure bet might contain rather a lot effort and time. Our writing used to be hampered via the truth that either one of us are complete time "workers", in order that this monograph is principally a spare time expedience. the most cognizance of this publication makes a speciality of an in depth evaluate of the molecular biology of poliovirus and particularly at the advances of the decade; clinical and environmental facets are just in short pointed out. Observations from older experiences are thought of in view of newer info. a few of the older ob­ servations supplied primary insights and cleared the path for modern-day examine; too usually such info has been missed or independently rediscovered. at the present time, poliovirus examine has back attracted significant curiosity. excessive issues won in the previous few years have been the elucidation of the whole nucleotide sequences of the RNAs of the 3 poliovinls serotypes and the corresponding vaccine lines, the demonstration of genome evolution in the course of transmission of poliovirus in a virus, extra characterization of the antigenic websites at the virus particle and of the antigenic waft, characterization of trade conforma­ tional states of the virion capsid, the advance of monoclonal antibodies opposed to a few of the virus proteins, observations at the position of the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, and cytoplasmic membranes as mediators within the virus­ caused redirection of the artificial equipment of the host phone, and characteriza­

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1965 [Virology 26, 386 (1965)] particles with cubic symmetry. However, electron micrographs invariably show the close face-centered cubic packing of particles, whereas the X-ray patterns of "wet" crystals imply a pseudo-cubic, body-centered packing. This is likely to reflect a distortability of the capsid under special conditions. ), so that the particles are rearranged into the close-packed structure. The crystal lattice deduced from the X-ray diffraction patterns is not strictly cubic; there are relatively small departures from the bodycentered cubic arrangement.

6 X 106 , and it constitutes 30% of the mass of the virus particle. The particle is spherical in shape, has no envelope, and it infects vertebrates only. II. The Distinguishing Features of Picomaviruses Poliovirus is taxonomically classified as a member of the family Picornaviridae and subfamilial genus Enterovirus. Picornaviruses are very wide-spread in nature and many diseases are known to be caused by these viruses. They are among the smallest (pico) viruses currently known. Their sole genetic material is a single strand of RNA contained within a small capsid.

The ability to infect and grow on certain types of cells, and in the susceptibility to influences from the environment. This could account for the present day multitude of picornaviruses and picornavirus induced diseases (Rekosh, 1977). ) Even such closely related viruses as the three subtypes of poliovirus were found to have mere 3652% sequence homology of their RNA genomes by RNA hybridization techniques (Young, 1973 b). The sequence homology between the genomes of the different subgroups of the enteroviruses by hybridization are in the range of only 5% (Young, 1973 a).

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