Engineering Materials by Henry Tindell
By Henry Tindell
A complete consultant to engineering fabrics utilized in the workshop, for techniques comparable to milling, welding, and lathe and bench-work. Designed for the overall fanatic or beginner engineer, Engineering fabrics presents in-depth info at the services and obstacles of popular metals, and helpful suggestion on fabric choice. With distinct diagrams and pictures all through, the ebook covers: a historical past of engineering fabrics, and the forming and behavior of various ferrous and non-ferrous metals; the sensible program of fabrics in engineering and case studi. Read more...
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A entire advisor to engineering fabrics utilized in the workshop, for procedures corresponding to milling, welding, and lathe and bench-work. Designed for the overall fanatic or beginner engineer, Engineering fabrics offers in-depth info at the features and barriers of standard metals, and important recommendation on fabric choice.
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Brunel pushed the boundaries of the possible with audacious designs culminating in the gigantic ‘Great Eastern’. 5 per cent purity copper, achieved only 50 per cent of possible conductivity – leaving plenty of scope for material improvement! The latter part of the nineteenth century saw the greater use of aluminium, discovered in 1827, although not deployed as a structural material until the first ‘Dural’ was produced in the aircraft era of the early twentieth century. Important alloys based on nickel were produced using the Mond process, as devised by Ludwig Mond in 1890 and then used commercially to convert nickel (Ni) oxides into pure Ni by utilizing the unique property of Ni to form a carbonyl compound in the presence of carbon monoxide.
The small size makes use of compression rings, universal in larger engines, impractical for commercial units. However, the material combination used has a proven record of sealing effectiveness without the need for piston rings. The gudgeon pin is a simple pin through the piston. This was previously made from a quench and tempered ‘silver steel’ (see Chapter 2), but now employs a standard steel dowel pin, so avoiding the difficulty in precise machining of such a small item. The con-rod is machined from a 2011 heat-treated bar of sturdy dimensions, to withstand the high compressive loading imposed by the high combustion pressures of a compression-ignition (diesel) engine, whilst limiting the inertial loads due to the high rotational speeds.
Extremely simple and effective, it would surely have amused the great Leonardo! Figure 1 Tensile testing – Leonardo da Vinci’s apparatus. Developments in the strength of materials In his book Two New Sciences (1638), Galileo of Florence was the first to discuss ‘stress analysis’, a pioneering work on strength of materials. He even came close to correctly understanding the bending of beams theory which underpins structural analysis. In England, several decades later, Robert Hooke provided a framework for elasticity and the relation between stress and strain (load versus extension) that is at the heart of predicting a material’s behaviour.