Constrained Minimization of smooth function using a genetic by Moerder D., Pamadi B.

By Moerder D., Pamadi B.

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A. -J. Dorne and R. , 1983; Frentzen, 1993). In contrast with the soluble acyltransferase, the membrane bound enzyme displays a strict selectivity: when both 16:0 and 18:1 are offered together as substrates to the membrane-bound enzyme, more than 90% of the fatty acids incorporated at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone are 16:0 (Frentzen, 1993). Therefore, the two plastid acyltransferases have distinct specificities and selectivities for acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (Fig. 4). Together, they lead to the formation, within the inner envelope membrane, of phosphatidic acid with 18:1 fatty acid at the sn-1 and 16:0 fatty acid at the sn-2 positions of the glycerol backbone.

About 20 times the envelope membranes area) and therefore contain the largest amount of plastid glycerolipids. 5 g of chloroplast lipids (representing 20% of a chloroplast dry mass), of which more than 2 g are galactolipids, that are mostly concentrated in the of the corresponding thylakoids (Lawlor, 1987). Finally, because thylakoids are probably the most widely developed membrane system on earth, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG)—the major lipid in thylakoid membrane—is probably the most abundant polar lipid on earth (Gounaris and Barber, 1983).

Joyard, E. Maréchal, C. Miège, M. A. -J. Dorne and R. , 1979). In fact, two distinct structures can be observed in higher plants (Fig. , 1985). As discussed above, the structures having 16:0 at the sn2 position (16:0/16:0 and 18:3/16:0), are typical of ‘prokaryotic’ lipids whereas the last one (16:0/18:3), having 18:3 at the sn-2 position, is typical of ‘eukaryotic’ lipids (see above). In a 16:3 plant, such as spinach, a higher proportion of SQDG (compared to the situation for MGDG) has a prokaryotic structure.

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