Coding the Hypothetical: A comparative typology of Russian by Jane F. Hacking

By Jane F. Hacking

Conditionals encode hypothesis. they communicate how occasions might have been various long ago or current, or will be assorted sooner or later if specific stipulations were or should be met. whereas all languages have enough money the skill to take a position or hypothesize approximately attainable occasions, the ways that they accomplish that differ. This paintings explores a few of this transformation via an research of the stucture and semantics of advanced conditional sentences in Russian and Macedonian. It addresses typological questions about the final homes of typical language conditionals and examines the function of the grammatical different types tense, aspect, mood and status within the coding of conditional which means. The ebook additionally discusses the connection among using those different types and the form of a language’s conditional procedure. for instance, using tense in counterfactual contexts in Macedonian correlates with the grammaticalization of extra colours of conditional which means than are grammaticalized in Russian, which doesn't hire demanding types during this approach. The learn attracts on facts from a wealthy number of assets and hence contains forms of conditionals ignored in lots of different reports. The publication addresses problems with main issue to Slavists and increases questions for these attracted to conditionals and the coding of hypothetical that means.

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Finally, it has been shown that Russian does not make a grammatical distinction between what I have thus far referred to as potential or counterfactual meanings. The term selected for the type of Russian conditional which encodes both these meanings should reflect this duality. In light of these considerations, I propose to use the terms expectative and non-expectative1 to refer to the two groups of conditionals. These terms have the following characteristics to recommend them. First, they do not exclude conditionals formed with imperative or infinitival clauses as do the terms indicative and subjunctive.

The link between the future tense and hypotheticality will be returned to in chapter three. 2 Present and past tense A present tense protasis can combine with present tense, future tense or an imperative in the apodosis, a fact which appears consistent with Šturmin's remarks about the flexibility of tenses which have the ability to refer to more than one temporal plane. It is often noted that the combination of two present tense imperfectives is used to convey atemporal or generic meaning (Drotvinas 1958, Formanovskaja 1989).

22 I will return to this type of conditional in chapter three. 2 Irreal conditionals In discussing the relationship between grammatical categories and irreal conditionals, many authors simply state that the verb in both clauses is in the subjunctive mood (Bunina 1969a). 57%. Apart from Drotvinas, no one pays much attention to aspect. e. not counterfactual, then imperfective aspect correlates with a meaning of atemporality while perfec­ tive aspect implies that the meaning is potential. Occasionally one does find examples with a subjunctive mood form in the protasis and a past tense form in the apodosis as in (32): (32) Να desjatye sutki ego dolžy byliPLIP vypustit', esli, konecno,  etomu vremeni emu ne pred"javiliFLIsm by oficial'nogo obvinenija.

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