Central and East European Migrants’ Contributions to Social by S. Maatsch
By S. Maatsch
In 2001 Germany and Austria grew to become the final european states to raise transnational controls proscribing entry to their labour markets for electorate of ex-communist nations. This e-book demanding situations anti-immigration discourses to teach that given the excessive percent of expert immigrants, it's the sending instead of the receiving nations who lose out.
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Additional info for Central and East European Migrants’ Contributions to Social Protection
Sjaastad used a human capital model of migration to explain the patterns of migration within the United States (Sjaastad, 1962). Since then, this model has been widely used to model the structural effects of labour migration. In the early 1970s, several authors have pointed to the detrimental impact of the out-migration of high-skilled persons on developing countries (Bhagwati and Dallalfar, 1973; Bhagwati and Hamada, 1974). As in Borjas’ model, immigrants decide to migrate if the present value of earnings abroad after migration costs exceeds the present value of earnings at home.
The rich may thus voluntarily decide to pay taxes in order to raise the poor citizens’ income. Contrary to Pigouvian welfare and the median-voter model, there may thus be Pareto-enhancing redistribution since poor and rich will beneﬁt in terms of increased utility. Finally, the median-voter model is a public choice approach to redistribution. Redistribution is no longer the result of a public planner that forces the rich to pay, nor is it the result of altruism. The median-voter model assumes that all individuals are bindingly engaged in a democratic society and decide on all issues by majority vote.
Contrary to other Central and Eastern European countries, Romania did not expel ethnic Germans after World War II. Accordingly, a sizeable number of ethnic Germans remained in the territory of the country. However, the government restricted emigration, so that later on they were not able to leave the country voluntarily. Starting in 1970, West Germany started to organise the repatriation of ethnic Germans wishing to leave the country. In return, Romania was granted ﬁnancial support. That way, a total of 230,000 Romanians of German descent were repatriated between 1970 and 1989 (Fassmann and Münz, 1994, p.