Calculations for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Second by Frank H. Stephenson

By Frank H. Stephenson

Essential for all Biotechnology scholars and technicians. It walks readers in the course of the minefield of laboratory calculations, supporting to avoid the kinds of blunders that could suggest the lack of weeks of labor. Key Features:* themes diversity from simple clinical notations to complicated topics like nucleic acid chemistry and recombinant DNA expertise* every one bankruptcy contains a short clarification of the concept that and covers helpful definitions, concept and cause for every form of calculation* contemporary functions of the strategies and computations in scientific, educational, business and easy learn laboratories are brought up through the textNew to this Edition:* up-to-date and elevated insurance of actual time PCR and the math used to degree gene expression* extra pattern difficulties in each bankruptcy for readers to perform strategies

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A ‘strong’ base is one that almost completely ionizes in water to give OH ions. Sodium hydroxide, for example, is a strong base and dissociates in water as follows: NaOH  Na  OH When a base is added to pure water, the OH ion is dissociated from the base. This hydroxyl ion can associate with the H ions already in the water to form H2O molecules, reducing the solution’s hydrogen ion concentration and increasing the solution’s pH. Water is a unique molecule. Since it can dissociate into H and OH ions, it acts as both an acid and as a base.

023  1023 molecules of glucose. 023  1023 is also known as Avogadro’s number. The molecular weight (MW, or gram molecular weight) of a substance is equivalent to the sum of its atomic weights. 45 g). Atomic weights can be found in the periodic table of the elements. The molecular weight of a compound, as obtained commercially, is usually provided by the manufacturer and is printed on the container’s label. On many reagent labels, a formula weight (FW) is given. For almost all applications in molecular biology, this value is used interchangeably with molecular weight.

8 pKa and the henderson–hasselbalch equation In the Bronsted concept of acids and bases, an acid is defined as a substance that donates a proton (a hydrogen ion). A base is a substance that accepts a proton. 8 pKa and the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation 41 Bronsted base. The original acid is called a conjugate acid. The base created from the acid by loss of a hydrogen ion is called a conjugate base. Dissociation of an acid in water follows the general formula HA  H 2O  H3O  A where HA is a conjugate acid, H2O is a conjugate base, H3O is a conjugate acid, and A is a conjugate base.

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