Biology of Conidial Fungi. Volume 2 by Garry T. Cole

By Garry T. Cole

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Similar outbreaks were subsequently reported from other Eastern European countries. According to the reports of Forgacs (1972) and Eppley (1977), stachybotryotoxicosis is undoubtedly a mycotoxicosis. B. Alimentary Toxic Aleukia During and after the war years (1942-1947), a serious disease occurred in Russia caused by the ingestion of moldy grain that had overwintered in the field. The disease, termed alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA), affected humans and animals of all age groups, reaching its peak in 1944 when more than 10% of the residents of Russia's Orenburg District contracted the often fatal illness (Joffe, 1965).

The compound has yet to be characterized and its toxicogenic properties established. A second toxic metabolite, roquefortine, was reported by Scott et al. (1976). The compound is neurotoxic to mice upon peritoneal injection and has been found as a natural contaminant of commercial blue cheese (Scott and Kennedy, 1976). Recently, Olivigni and Bullerman (1978) isolated both penicillic acid (see P. cyclopium) and patulin (see Section III, B, 2) from atypical isolates of P. roqueforti but were unable to detect these toxins in commercial strains used in manufacture of cheeses.

Because of its unusually slow growth rate, it may often go undetected when mold floras are determined. Colonies grown on Czapek agar are dull blue in areas of sporulation and faint yellow elsewhere. Clear to yellow surface droplets are abundantly produced. Colonies are odorless. The colony reverse is flesh color to slightly pink. Growth is quite restricted. Conidiophores are symmetric and unique to P. citrinum, consisting of only widely divergent metulae and flask-shaped phialides from which long chains of phialoconidia are produced.

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