Biological physics. Energy, information, life by Philip Nelson
By Philip Nelson
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Additional info for Biological physics. Energy, information, life
5). Visible structures include ﬂagella (trailing to the right), the nucleoid (white region in center), and the thick, rigid cell wall. The ﬂagella propel the bacterium by a mechanism discussed in Chapter 5; they are in turn driven by motors discussed in Chapter 11. (c) Human immunodeﬁciency virus. ] them to partition itself into separate compartments. (b) Cells use active transport to bring synthesized materials to particular destinations. (c) Biochemical processes are highly speciﬁc: Most are mediated by enzymes, which select one particular target molecule and leave the rest alone.
E. During exercise, the metabolic rate increases. Someone performing hard labor for 10 hours a day might need about 3500 kcal of food per day. Suppose the person does mechanical work at a steady rate of 50 W over 10 hours. We can deﬁne the body’s eﬃciency as the ratio of mechanical work done to excess energy intake (beyond the BMR calculated in (b)). Find this eﬃciency. 9 · 1026 W. At Earth this gives an incident energy ﬂux 28 Chapter 1. 4 kW/m2 . In this problem we’ll investigate whether any other planets in our solar system could support the sort of water-based life we ﬁnd on Earth.
Suppose it takes energy to break one of these bonds. Then the complete vaporization of 1 cm3 of liquid requires that we break all the bonds. The corresponding energy cost is Qvap × (1 cm3 ). Next consider a molecule on the surface of the ﬂuid. It has only ﬁve bonds—the nearest neighbor on the top is missing (suppose this is a ﬂuid–vacuum interface). Draw a picture to help you visualize this situation. Thus to create more surface area requires that we break some bonds. The energy needed to do that, divided by the new area created, is Σ.