Biochemistry and Genetics, 2007, p.514 by Golder Wilson

By Golder Wilson

This distinct try prep advisor enables you to try out your wisdom of crucial biochemistry and genetics thoughts for the USMLE Step 1; perform with 500 USMLE Step 1-style questions with referenced solutions; overview causes for correct and unsuitable solutions; and construct self belief, talents, and data.

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Ammonia is converted to glutamine (from glutamate), alanine (from pyruvate), and glutamate (from α-ketoglutarate) in the liver; cirrhosis produces collateral circulation with bypass of portal blood, causing hyperammonemia and neurologic symptoms including cognitive dysfunction, slurred speech, blurred vision, rapid breathing, coma, and death. • Urea is the major end product of nitrogen metabolism in humans and is synthesized through the urea cycle (Fig. 18); carbamoyl synthetase is rate-limiting for urea synthesis and its activity is determined by acetylCoA levels through its conversion to N-acetylglutamate cofactor.

The high Redox potential of oxygen to water conversion drives the intermediate reactions of food oxidation/metabolism, generating reducing equivalents that are converted to fuel (ATP, high energy phosphates) by oxidative phosphorylation. • Several classes of enzymes catalyze oxidative reactions, using the Redox potential to generate high energy compounds or to detoxify drugs or environmental agents (see Table 5). LIPID,AMINO ACID,AND NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM Key concepts: Significant lipids and lipid synthesis (lipogenesis— Murray, pp 111–121, 173–179.

Glycogenolysis is very different from glycogen synthesis, requiring multiple enzymes such as glycogen phosphorylase that employs phosphate to hydrolyze 1 → 4 links and debranching enzymes that hydrolyze 1 → 6 links. Liberated glucose-1-phosphate is converted to glucose-6-phosphate and (in liver) to glucose by glucose-6phosphatase (thus increasing blood glucose—Fig. 14). • Phosphorylases differ between liver and muscle, activated by phosphorylation of their serine hydroxyl groups (via phosphorylase kinase and protein phosphatase) and by allosteric interactions with cyclic AMP or AMP.

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