Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory by James B. Freeman
By James B. Freeman
This monograph first provides a style of diagramming argument macrostructure, synthesizing the normal circle and arrow strategy with the Toulmin version. A theoretical justification of this technique via a dialectical knowing of argument, a severe exam of Toulmin on warrants, an intensive dialogue of the linked-convergent contrast, and an account of the right kind reconstruction of enthymemes follows.
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Extra resources for Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory (Argumentation Library)
Thus the graph (See Fig. 33) Fig. 33 P Q R indicates that the inference from P to Q is defeasible, while the inference from Q to R is conclusive or necessary. Appendix 2: Comparison with Pollock’s Inference Graphs 35 Defeater links diagram defeater relations. In both (1995) and (2008), Pollock uses heavy arrows to represent defeat relations. Thus Fig. 34 Fig. 34 P R Q S represents that node S is defeated by node Q. In marked contrast with the system of diagramming we have presented, defeat relations hold between nodes.
Wigmore apparently recognizes rebutting but not undercutting defeaters. If correct, his seeing defeaters attach to the conclusion being attacked rather than the step from premises to that conclusion is motivated. As we have already argued, we believe that our method of attaching the defeater box to the modality or the horizontal line is preferable. If an inferential step is less than deductively valid, then augmenting the premises with additional information, consistent with those premises, can produce a set of statements in light of which the conclusion is not sufficiently supported, even though the original premises constituted prima facie adequate grounds for the conclusion.
By contrast, in (2008) he represents only rebutting defeat relations as holding between nodes, while undercutting defeat relations hold between a node and an inference arrow. Simplifying his diagram somewhat yields Fig. 36. ) However, in the balance of his discussion, Pollock speaks of nodes, rather than support (or defeat) links, being defeated. The underlying motivation behind Pollock’s inference graphs is distinctly different from the motivation underlying our mode of representing argument structure.