A Textbook of Regional Anatomy by J. Joseph MD, DSc, FRCOG (auth.)

By J. Joseph MD, DSc, FRCOG (auth.)

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They also supply the intercostal and anterior abdominal muscles. The parietal pleura and peritoneum are supplied by the intercostal nerves. Reference to the internal thoracic (mammary) artery, its mammary branches and the lymph nodes related to it has already been made (p. 13). The artery runs vertically downwards about 1 em lateral to the lateral border of the sternum and gives off the anterior intercostal arteries which run laterally in the intercostal spaces. When it reaches the sixth intercostal space the artery divides into the musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries.

The downward movement of the diaphragm is associated with a marked bulging forwards of the abdominal wall. The upward movement in expiration is assisted by a strong contraction of the lateral muscles of the abdominal wall. This contraction pushes the diaphragm upwards. There is also a marked increase in the circumference in the chest of about 4-5 em as compared with the 1 em of quiet respiration. There is a strong contraction of the intercostal muscles in both inspiration and expiration. It has been suggested that the main function of this contraction is to prevent the rib spaces from being sucked in during inspiration and pushed out during expiration.

The right atrium forms the right border, between the anterior and right surfaces, and the whole of the right side. The left ventricle forms the left border, a small part of the anterior surface and the apex but most of it is on the inferior surface. It also forms a small part of the posterior surface. There are two grooves on the anterior surface, the coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) between the right atrium and right ventricle, and the anterior interventricular sulcus between the ventricles.

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