A syntax of substance by David Adger

By David Adger

In A Syntax of Substance, David Adger proposes a brand new method of word constitution that eschews sensible heads and labels buildings exocentrically. His concept at the same time simplifies the syntactic process and restricts the variety of attainable constructions, ruling out the ever present (remnant) roll-up derivations and forcing a separation of arguments from their obvious heads. This new method has a few empirical results, which Adger explores within the area of relational nominals throughout assorted language households, together with Germanic, Romance, Celtic, Polynesian, and Semitic. He indicates that the relationality of such nouns as hand, edge, or mother -- which appear to have as a part of their that means a relation among ingredients -- is de facto a part of the syntactic illustration during which they're used instead of an inherent a part of their which means. This empirical final result follows without delay from the recent syntactic procedure, as does a unique research of PP enhances to nouns and possessors. Given this, he argues that nouns can, as a rule, be regarded as easily requisites of substance, differentiating them from real predicates.

A Syntax of Substance bargains an cutting edge contribution to debates in theoretical syntax concerning the nature of syntactic representations and the way they connect with semantic interpretation and linear order.

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If we do, then the current system is superior to the standard one. 2 Spell-out of Functional Categories The denial of the existence of functional heads forces us into a position that takes the phonology and morphology of functional morphemes to be read off of labeled structures, rather than being able to adopt the standard position, where they are functional heads Merged as independent pieces of structure. There are two cases to consider: (60) a. bound functional morphemes (bfms) b. free functional morphemes (ffms) For bfms, I adopt a version of the approach advocated by Brody (2000a).

In general I will take the semantic interpretation of the i-complement and i-specifier relations to be type-driven (as in Klein and Sag 1985). The role of the syntactic relations of i-complement and i-specifier is to impose a semantic ordering of operations. I will also assume that the interpretation of a case where a label recurses involves the identity function (even though the syntactic relation is an i-complement relation). This gives us:4 (22) In a structure [γ α β], α optional, a. If β is the i-complement of γ, where label(γ)>label(β) then [[γ]] = [[[label(γ)]]◦([[β]])]◦([[α]]) b.

Merge(X, Y), X part of Y, → {X, Y/X} (where Y/X signifies X is contained in Y) (Internal Merge). c. Merge(X, Y), X = Y, → {X, X} = {X} (Self Merge). 7 Schematically, one kind of derivation, utilizing only Self Merge, will look as follows: (29) a. b. c. d. Merge x with x = {x, x} = {x}. Merge {x} with {x} = {{x}, {x}} = {{x}}. Merge {{x}} with {{x}} = {{{x}}, {{x}}} = {{{x}}}. Mixing Self Merge with External Merge will give a derivation of the following general shape: (30) a. b. c. d. e. Merge x with x = {x, x} = {x}.

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