A Search for an Electrostatic Analog to the Gravitational by Kennedy R.J., Thorndike E.M.

By Kennedy R.J., Thorndike E.M.

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Additional resources for A Search for an Electrostatic Analog to the Gravitational Red Shift

Sample text

The transition by suppliers responding to the worldwide Pb-free movement poses a major reliability risk to manufacturers of high-reliability systems. System manufacturers must take immediate steps to understand their current exposure, provide strong direction to their suppliers, and aggressively support development and implementation of effective mitigation techniques. Alloys of Sn and Pb are generally considered acceptable where the alloy contains a minimum of 3% Pb by weight. Although some experimenters have reported whisker growth from Sn–Pb alloys, such whiskers have also been reported to be dramatically smaller than those from pure tin plated surfaces and are believed to be sufficiently small so as not to pose a significant risk for the geometries of today’s microelectronics.

There is no test that can accurately determine a plating’s propensity to whisker. Suppliers cannot detect differences in the whiskering susceptibility of different platings. A new plating material will appear to have the same reliability as the one it is replacing. Because there is no detectable change in form, fit, function, quality, or reliability, some suppliers see no need to issue a product change notice. Many suppliers and distributors are unaware of the tin whisker issue. The stratification of electronics manufacturing gives systems integrators little insight into the materials that are actually being incorporated into their products.

Phys. , 80, 580. This page intentionally left blank 2 Tin Whiskers: New Challenge for Long-Term RoHS Reliability With present circuit geometries so much smaller than they have been in the recent past, adjacent whiskers can easily bridge spaces between leads, and/or whiskers from adjacent areas can touch each other causing short-circuits. Loose whiskers can bridge board traces, foul optics, or jam microelectromechanical machines (MEMs). Metallic whiskers were first documented in 1946. It has been established that tin (Sn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and silver (Ag) can grow whiskers.

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