A Grammar of Classical Japanese by Akira Komai
By Akira Komai
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An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions. : MIT Press. Lakoff, George. 1971. " In Danny D. Steinberg and Leon A. Jakobovits, Semantics, pp. 232-96. London: Cambridge University Press. Lightfoot, David. 1982. The Language Lottery. : MIT Press. McCawley, James D. 1968. " In Emmon Bach and Robert T. Harms, Universals in Linguistic Theory, pp. 125-69. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Newmeyer, Frederick J. 1980. Linguistic Theory in America. New York: Academic Press. - - - . 1983. Grammatical Theory: Its Limits and Its Possibilities.
Some of these are shown in (14). In most cases, these words also belong to the class of prepositions, as shown in (15). Suppose that prepositions, like verbs, Categories and Phrase Structure 23 could be either transitive (take an object) or intransitive (take no object). As with verbs, some prepositions are always transitive, some are always intransitive, and some are both transitive and intransitive. Examples are given in (16)-(18). (16) (17) (18) Intransitive only: a. He threw the book away. b.
Jennifer ate the apple. The apple was eaten by Jennifer. Notice that in (la), the subject is Jennifer, while in (lb) it is the apple. In (la), the apple is the object, while there does not seem to be an object in (lb). However, by merely describing the structural relationships in these two sentences, we are missing an important point. That is, both sentences describe the same event. In both sentences, Jennifer plays the role of agent, or doer of the action, and the apple plays the role of patient, or undergoer of the action.