A Functional Grammar of Dholuo by Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the jap Sudanic relations. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya in basic terms Dholuo, spoken by way of approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic workforce. Languages heavily regarding it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of sensible Grammar, the current quantity is a learn with a two-fold goal: First, it units out to supply a descriptively sufficient account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the potential of delivering such an account with no utilizing transformational principles within the feel of structure-changing operations.
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Additional resources for A Functional Grammar of Dholuo
In such cases the signiﬁcance ofthe tone is mentioned, usually as part ofthe gloss. 2.. ' 2. 1 . INTRODUCTION It is difﬁcult, and probably erroneous, to try to provide an analysis of a particular aspect of the grammar of a language without ﬁrst showing how it ﬁts into the general fabric of that grammar. FG makes use of both grammatical (or syntactic) categories and functions. Such categories and functions must be identiﬁed and deﬁned in a speciﬁc way for the language under study. In addition, FG accounts make signiﬁcant use of the observable surface functional patterns ofa given language.
While (85) can be said to paraphrase (87a,b), both of the sentences of (87) are more actor-oriented than (35) because of their explicitness on the class of the actor, which they make definitely [+ human]. On the other hand, (87) is less actor-oriented than (86), the latter being so speciﬁc in its identiﬁcation of the actor that it could be used for either accusation or commendation, depending on whether or not the owner of the house wants it knocked down. It is clear from the above discussion that the event-oriented reﬂexive construction is just one of the impersonal constructions one can identify in Dholuo.
In this study we take the stand that if a word can predicate a non-stative situation (state of affairs) then it is a verb and not an adjective, even if it also predicates states 36 Dnotuo GRAMMAR in some of its uses? Accordingly we shall regard as adjectives those words which predicate only states. g. (60a) Dhiang'ber cow good ‘A cow is good‘ (6Db) Punda rach donkey bad ‘A donkey is bad‘ (6l)c) Kwach ger leopard ﬁerce ‘A leopard is ﬁerce‘ (60d) Dale bor home far ‘Horne is far away‘ The predicative idea is only semantic (and not syntactic) in Dholuo -because adjectives, whether predicative or attributive, occur postpositionally.