A Concise Introduction to Syntactic Theory: The by Elizabeth A. Cowper
By Elizabeth A. Cowper
This textbook is meant to provide scholars a short begin in utilizing thought to handle syntactic questions. At each one level, Cowper is cautious to introduce a theoretical gear that's not more complicated than is needed to accommodate the phenomenon into account. accomplished and updated, this available quantity also will supply an outstanding refresher for linguists returning to the learn of Government-Binding theory". Cowper indicates the analytical units of present principles-and-parameters techniques, takes readers rigorously during the critical components of grammatical conception (including very fresh work), and ushers them selectively into the technical literature. . . . a significant creation in the event you need to know the nuts and bolts of syntactic concept and to determine why linguists are so excited those days". -David Lightfoot, collage of Maryland "An first-class brief advent to the govt. and Binding version of syntactic concept. . . . Cowper's paintings succeeds in instructing syntactic argumentation and in exhibiting the conceptual purposes at the back of particular proposals in smooth syntactic theory". -Jaklin Kornfilt, Syracuse collage
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Additional resources for A Concise Introduction to Syntactic Theory: The Government-Binding Approach
An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions. : MIT Press. Lakoff, George. 1971. " In Danny D. Steinberg and Leon A. Jakobovits, Semantics, pp. 232-96. London: Cambridge University Press. Lightfoot, David. 1982. The Language Lottery. : MIT Press. McCawley, James D. 1968. " In Emmon Bach and Robert T. Harms, Universals in Linguistic Theory, pp. 125-69. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Newmeyer, Frederick J. 1980. Linguistic Theory in America. New York: Academic Press. - - - . 1983. Grammatical Theory: Its Limits and Its Possibilities.
Some of these are shown in (14). In most cases, these words also belong to the class of prepositions, as shown in (15). Suppose that prepositions, like verbs, Categories and Phrase Structure 23 could be either transitive (take an object) or intransitive (take no object). As with verbs, some prepositions are always transitive, some are always intransitive, and some are both transitive and intransitive. Examples are given in (16)-(18). (16) (17) (18) Intransitive only: a. He threw the book away. b.
Jennifer ate the apple. The apple was eaten by Jennifer. Notice that in (la), the subject is Jennifer, while in (lb) it is the apple. In (la), the apple is the object, while there does not seem to be an object in (lb). However, by merely describing the structural relationships in these two sentences, we are missing an important point. That is, both sentences describe the same event. In both sentences, Jennifer plays the role of agent, or doer of the action, and the apple plays the role of patient, or undergoer of the action.