A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares
By Alan Campbell Wares
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In word final position, /k/ often occurs as the final member of a cluster, as in sampúl^k 'mosquito', rávk 'pain'. VII. THE PHONEMES OF COCOPA The segmental phonemes of Cocopa are : Consonants : Semiconsonants : Vowels: ρ t t s s m η 1 1 r c k s χ ny ly kw xw y i e w u a Cocopa has fewer stops than Walapai, Mohave, or Maricopa. Like Walapai, it has a retroflex /t/ but lacks the palatalized velar and the back velar stops of the languages previously described ; in cognate words the corresponding phoneme in Cocopa is /k/.
IJAL, 23 (1957), p. 22. 30 THE PHONEMES OF WALAPAI For bisyllabic words the predominant phonotactic pattern is CV(C)CV(')C(C) as in civOP 'liver', madi'l 'thigh', Bampfrrk 'a fly', θατάρ 'five'. Another common phonotactic pattern for words of more than one syllable is (V)CV(")C(V), where an unstressed vowel may occur initially or finally, as illustrated by yáki 'cradle', ucP 'charcoal'. The final unstressed vowel, when not a suffixial morpheme, is frequently represented by a non-phonemic release which is generally heard as a mid central vocoid (shwa), and which may be characteristic of overcareful pronunciation.
Examples : sin&ák 'woman', sarâp 'five', misil 'thigh', maspó 'bee', xamlús 'smallpox'. The second sibilant phoneme, /s/, corresponding to Mo /s/, is slightly retroflexed as well as palatalized. Examples : smál^k 'ear', M'k 'bone', xavsú 'blue, green', xamSé 'star', maní'S 'scorpion'. The velar spirant /x/ is characterized by oral friction which the corresponding Mohave spirant /h/ lacks. The same is true of the labiovelar spirant ¡xw¡, which corresponds to Mo /h w /. Examples of both phonemes: /x/ xumáy 'man's son', xam'úlv 'ashes', óxk 'cough', saxúk 'ten', copâx 'hill' ; /x w / xwétam 'red', milxwé 'skunk'.