1001 Ideas That Changed the Way We Think

A sublime addition to the profitable “1001” series—a complete, chronological advisor to an important techniques from the best minds of the earlier 3,000 years.

1001 rules that modified the best way We Think is a entire advisor to the main attention-grabbing and resourceful recommendations from the best minds in background. starting from the traditional knowledge of Confucius and Plato to today’s state-of-the-art thinkers, it deals a wealth of stimulation and enjoyment for everybody with a curious mind.

Within the pages of this e-book you will discover a wide selection of solutions to the good, everlasting questions: How was once the universe created and what's where of people inside it? How may still an individual dwell? and the way will we construct a simply society? 1001 rules that modified the best way We Think additionally features a host of hypotheses which are impressive for his or her sheer weirdness—from the concept that of the transmigration of souls to parallel universes and the theoretical paradoxes of time go back and forth (what occurs when you commute again in time and kill your individual grandfather?).

Discover how the Greek thinker Zeno “proved” a flying arrow by no means strikes; how smooth technology has proven butterfly’s wing can fan the flames of an Atlantic hurricane; and the mathematical facts of the life of existence in different galaxies. The inspirational rules explored right here diversity from Gandhi’s concept of civil disobedience to Henry David Thoreau’s compliment of the straightforward existence and Mary Wollstonecraft’s groundbreaking advocacy of women’s rights. The publication additionally covers a large choice of way of life suggestions, corresponding to “rational dress” and naturism, and cultural pursuits together with Neoclassicism, Surrealism, and Postmodernism.

Supported through a wealth of remarkable illustrations and illuminating quotations, 1001 rules that modified the best way We Think is either an in-depth historical past of rules and a delightfully browsable resource of leisure.

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And because a cell has only so much chemical energy, there’s a trade-­off: The more energy it devotes to making high-­grade proteins, the less there is available for other things. It struck Kirkwood that this trade-­off may be a key factor in setting the rate of aging. That is, most of the cells in our bodies, which evolution hasn’t designed to last all that long, probably devote only enough energy to molecular quality control to ensure that we don’t crumble before reproducing. The exception is germ cells, which must be kept in tip-­top shape to ensure that the kids are well made.

The most important free radicals in biology consist of oxygen bonded to hydrogen and other elements—­scientists often refer to them as reactive oxygen species, or ROS, and to the harmful effect of run-­amok mobs of free radicals as oxidative stress. The most dangerous one is the hydroxyl radical, an oxygen-­hydrogen combination with a particularly ferocious appetite for electrons. Another key member of the ROS family is hydrogen peroxide, found in antiseptics and bleach. Although technically not a free radical, hydrogen peroxide is continually formed in cells from a free radical, called superoxide (a radicalized 34 • T H E Y o u th P i l l oxygen molecule), that’s released by the energy-­producing oxidation of sugar.

Cross-­links in collagen alone, an abundant protein in skin, cartilage, arteries, and tendons, are thought to underlie everything from high blood pressure to wrinkles. Harman’s updated theory was later honed by other scientists, who postulated that damaged mitochondria, like aging engines belching smoke, tend to spew more free radicals, which causes yet more mitochondrial damage—­killer positive feedback, in other words. According to a popular variant of this idea, the degradation of mitochondrial DNA is the main driver of a self-­accelerating “vicious cycle” at the heart of aging.

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